Important Topics in Geography for UPSC MAINS Optional Paper 2

Paper II Section A
Physical Setting...

  • Physiographic features of India - Himalayas
  • Physiographic features of India - Northern Plains
  • Physiographic features of India - Peninsula
  • Antecedent draiange of Himalayas
  • Himalayan & Peninsuar drainage system
  • Comparison of Himalayan & Peninsular Drainage System
  • Climatic regions of India (Kendrew & Stamp)
  • Climatic regions of India (Koppen, Thornthwaite)
  • Climatic Regions of India (Trewartha)
  • Indian Monsoon
  • Rainfall Pattern
  • Floods & Droughts (Also covered in Paper II section B)
  • Major Soil Types of India & their distribution
  • Vegetation of India
  • Watershed (short note)
  • Tropical Cyclones in India (Also covered in Paper II section B)


Resources

  • Fossil Fuel resources (Energy Crisis - Discuss Renewable resources)
  • Conservation
  • Non Conventional Energy Resources
  • 3 Agriculture Role of infrastructural Factors (Irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power etc)
  • Role of Institutional Factors (Land holding, land tenure & land reforms)
  • Role of Irrigation & Irrigation pattern in India.
  • Green Revolution
  • Second Green Revolution (Short Note)
  • Imperatives of Ushering Second Green Revolution (Short Note)
  • Dry Farming (Full Length)
  • Agro & Social Forestry
  • White Revolution (Full Length)
  • Agricultural efficiency (Short Note)
  • Agricultural Productivity (Short Note)
  • Agricultural Intensity (Short Note)
  • Land Capability (Short Note)
  • Agro-Climatic zones of India & its basis
  • Animal Husbandary in India (Full Length)
  • Crop Combination Regions
  • Sericulture
  • Poultry
  • Apiculture
  • Aquaculture

4 Industry

  • Industrial regions of India & their characteristics
  • Growth, Location & Distribution of Iron & Steel Industries
  • Growth, Location & Distribution of Cotton textile Industries
  • Growth, Location & Distribution of Fertilizer Industries
  • Liberalization & New Industrial Policy
  • Special Economic Zones
  • Growth of Indian Industry esp since independence
  • Tourism & Ecotourism

5 Tranport & Trade

  •  Road Transport of India (Cover Golden Quadrilateral from Direction)
  • Golden Quadrilateral (Short Note)
  • Rail Transport of India
  • Water Transport of India
  • Air Transport (Short Note)
  • Pipelines
  • Ports & their role in foreign trade
  • Development of Communication technology in India


Paper II Section B

Cultural Setting

  • Population - growth & distribution
  • Distribution pattern of Population density in India (Full Length)
  • Demographic Attributes - Sex ratio (short note)
  • Literacy & how to improve it (short note)
  • Population Policy of India
  • Tribal Areas of India - its problems & role of tribal devp blocks
  • Genesis of racial diversity (short note)
  • Migration (inter-regional, intra-regional & international)

2 Settlements

  • Types, Patterns & morphology of rural settlements
  • Morphology & Patterns of Rural Settlements
  • Slums & how to address the problem
  • Morphology of Indian cities.
  • Salient Features of Indian Urbanization & Problems
  • Characteristic of Rural Urban Fringe in India (short Note)

3
Regional Development & Planning

  • Regional development planning in 5 year plans
  • Command Area Development (Short Note)
  • Watershed as a planning unit
  • Multi-Level Planning
  • Rural Development Program
  • Regional Disparities (Short Note)
  • Drought Prone Areas Programme (Short Note)
  • Desert Development Programme (Short Note)
  • Regional Planning in India

4 Political Aspects

  • Role of India in geopolitics of the Indian Ocean
  • International Boundary of India & related issues
  • Regional Consciousness
  • Geographical Basis of Indian Federalism (short note)
  • State Reorganization since 1950s (Short Note)

5 Contemporary Issues

  •  Earthquakes
  • Floods
  • Droughts
  • Environment Impact Assessment
  • Landslides (short note)
  • Tropical Cyclones in India
  • Interlinking of Rivers